Connexxion
Het ontstaan van Connexxion / the birth of Connexxion.

With special thanks to John Veerkamp

Nederlands - English
With the creation of connexxion in May 1999 the largest bus company in the Netherlands is born. It has over 3000 buses and another 3000 minibuses, taxis and other vehicles. In addition conenxxion has 27 trams, 2 trains and a number of ferries. The reorganisation of public transport in the Netherlands leading to the creation of connexxion (and Syntus) is visualised above.

After the mergers of the 1970's the 1980's are a period of relative stability in the future connexxion region. Only a few small companies are integrated into the larger ones. In April 1985, the AMZ (services around Goes) is integrated in ZWN, end 1986 SZ (city services in Zwolle) is integrated in VAD, and April 1990 the NZH absorbes AOT (services on the island of Texel) and in January 1991 also ENHABO (Zaandam). But during the 1990's the great reorganisation takes place. January 1, 1993 GVM and GVA (city services Arnhem) merge and become GVM. In May 1994 CN and VAD merge and become Midnet. To create more coherent regions the western part of CN is integrated into NZH, the southern part of NZH is integrated into WN and the Nieuwegein division of WN is transfered to Midnet. The first of January 1995 Zuidwestnederland and WN merge and become ZWN. Since January 1997 TET and GVM work together under the Oostnet name. In May 1999 Midnet, ZWN, NZH and Oostnet merge and become connexxion. But at the same time the separation of Syntus becomes effective, which covers a large part of the Former GSM area. The various companies also had created subsidiaries for taxi, coach and non public transport services. These companies were also brought into the connexxion Group. The ones operating large buses are:

-NZH: NZH Travel, CTG, NZH Groepsvervoer

-ZWN: ZWN Tours, Speedwell, Westercoach, Geukes, Scholtes & Valstar, Westland Taxi, Citax Midden Zeeland

-Midnet: Centraal Nederland Tours/Bolderman, Midnet Tours, KOVO, Bangma

-Oostnet: Morren Reizen, Arke-TAD, Oostnet Taxi.

Hermes and its subsidiary Op het Broek are also part of the connexxion Group, but are treated separately as the integration is not yet "visible".

Most of the bus companies outside the large cities in the Netherlands were part of VSN (United Regional Transport Netherlands). As a preparation for privatisation and future bidding processes, VSN was divided into VSN I, which was to become connexxion, and VSN II, which was to be prepared for sale. The northern part of VSN II was indeed sold to Arriva, but the southern part (Hermes) was retained and will be integrated into Connexxion. The only large company that remained outside this arrangement is BBA, in which VSN was only a minority shareholder. This company was sold to Connex in 2001. Connexxion is a limited company, but the only shareholder is the Dutch state.